Silvery-white as a metal; blue to light violet as neodymium oxide
It is a soft and easily malleable metal with a high chemical activity that forms an oxide layer when exposed to air.
A large part of neodymium used worldwide is processed in the manufacture of Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. It is a component of catalysts in the rubber manufacturing and serves as a doping material in the production of luminescent material. Neodymium is applied in the glass production in optical special glasses and also to produce color effects. It is added to magnesium alloys for the aircraft industry, to produce strengthening of the alloy, to modify stainless steels, as well as to improve the characteristics of cast steels. Moreover, neodymium is used in high-temperature resistant layers of enamel, in ceramic materials and also in mixed oxides for exhaust gas catalysts.